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The Hiiragi group studies robustness in development and aims to understand the design principle of self-organizing multi-cellular systems.
Self-organization is a defining feature of living systems and entails complex interplay between molecular, cellular and mechanical signals across various spatio-temporal scales. Using early mammalian embryos as a model, the Hiiragi group adopts a variety of methods including genetics, microscopy, biophysics, engineering and modelling, to investigate how self-organised forms and patterns emerge from a spherical mass of cells.
Mammalian eggs lack polarity and symmetry is broken during early embryogenesis. Our studies revealed that morphogenesis and gene expression are highly variable between embryos and cells during this period (Dietrich et al. 2007 Development; Ohnishi et al. 2014 Nat Cell Biol; Niwayama et al. 2019 Dev Cell). Determining how early embryos develop with reproducible form despite such variability remains a fundamental question in mammalian development. We established a multi-disciplinary framework integrating biology, physics and mathematics, which showed that feedback interactions between cell and tissue mechanics (contractility, adhesion, geometry and pressure), polarity, and fate robustly control size and inside-outside patterning of the early mouse embryo (Korotkevich et al. 2017 Dev Cell; Maître et al. 2016 Nature; Chan et al. 2019 Nature). We will build on our mechanistic understanding, and integrate the self-organisation model to tissue-tissue and embryo-uterus interactions that were revealed by our recent study (Ichikawa, Zhang, Panavaite et al. 2021 bioRxiv).
The size of embryos and their organs is precisely controlled in each species, despite the inherent variabilities observed during morphogenesis and growth. The previously reported mechanism for embryo size control (Chan et al. 2019 Nature) may work only when fluid cavity expansion is substantially faster than tissue growth, as in pre-implantation embryos. However, the mechanism underlying the remarkable precision in post-implantation growth remains unknown. Using our newly developed ex vivo culture system (Ichikawa, Zhang, Panavaite et al. 2021 bioRxiv), we will dissect the dynamic changes in cell and tissue growth. We aim to understand how the size of tissues and embryos are sensed, and how this feeds back into the system to control cellular growth dynamics.
The developmental programme operates in space and time. While we are beginning to understand the mechanisms of spatial coordination of development within the framework of morphogenesis, little is known about how developmental progression is temporally controlled. Furthermore, the relationship between spatial and temporal programmes for developmental precision is yet to be explored. On one hand, our recent study showed a new role for temporal variability in cell cycle progression during robust embryo morphogenesis (Fabrèges, in preparation). On the other hand, embryo size may be adjusted by sensing the spatial dimensions of the embryo and changing cell cycle dynamics accordingly. We will identify the functional link between spatial and temporal control of development across cellular and tissue scales.
Ichikawa T, Zhang HT [...] Kreshuk A and Hiiragi T
Chan CJ, Costanco M [...] Mahadevan L and Hiiragi T
Niwayama R, Moghe P [...] Piel M and Hiiragi T
Ryan AQ, Chan CJ, Graner F and Hiiragi T
Korotkevich E, Niwayama R [...] Buchholz F and Hiiragi T
Maître JL, Turlier H [...] Nedelec F and Hiiragi T
Takashi Hiiragi is group leader at the Hubrecht Institute. The Hiiragi group aims to understand what defines multi-cellular living systems. In particular, the group studies the design principle of tissue self-organization, using early mammalian embryos as a model system. To this end, they developed an experimental framework that integrates biology, physics and mathematics. Their recent studies led to a model in which feedback between cell fate, polarity, and cell and tissue mechanics underlies multi-cellular self-organization. The group adopts a wide variety of experimental strategies including embryology, genetics, advanced microscopy, biophysics, engineering and theoretical modelling, in order to address fundamental questions in cell and developmental biology.
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Positions are available for ambitious predoctoral and postdoctoral fellows interested in addressing fundamental questions in cell and developmental biology. Please send your research interest and CV to Takashi Hiiragi (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Utrecht Science Park